The term “queen” must be understood as a sovereign authority, not as an excellence in a given order - as when it is said of a great cook that he is the “king of gastronomy”: in this last sense , the primacy of Mary in the supernatural order would suffice to give her this title.
Psalms 44:10 says: “The queen stood on thy right hand, in gilded clothing.” This Psalm celebrates the King Messiah and His bride who is, principally and singularly, the Virgin.
Two prefigures of Mary are queens: Bathsheba (3 Kings 2:19) and Esther (Est. 2:17; 5:3), and Elizabeth addresses Mary as the “Mother of my Lord,” (Lk 1:32).
The Fathers of the Church recognize this dignity in her
S. Ephrem, Oratio ad Ss. Dei Matrem: “Noble maiden and patroness, Queen, Mistress, keep me, protect me.”
St. Andrew of Crete, Homilia II in Dormitionem Ss. Deiparæ: “Today [Jesus] transports from her earthly dwelling, as Queen of the human race, His ever-Virgin Mother.”
S. Germain of Constantinople, In Præsentationem, I: “Sit down, O Sovereign, it is indeed appropriate that you sit in high places since you are Queen and more glorious than all kings.”
In the Roman liturgy, the feast of the Blessed Virgin Mary Queen was instituted by Pius XII in 1954. It is also enough to recall the antiphons: Salve Regina, Regina Cæli, Ave Regina Cælorum.
The Eastern Liturgies also celebrate the Virgin Queen: in the Byzantine rite, on the Sunday after Christmas, at Matins: “O just, o very happy (Joseph), because of your royal origin you have been chosen among all for husband of the Queen pure, who will marvelously give birth to the King Jesus.”
Leo XIII, Encyclical Magnæ Dei Matris: “the crown of the kingdoms of heaven and of earth will await her [the Virgin Mary] because she will be the invincible Queen of Martyrs. It is thus that she will be seated in the heavenly city of God by the side of her Son, crowned for all eternity, because she will drink with Him the cup overflowing with sorrow, faithfully through all her life, most faithfully on Calvary.”
Saint Pius X, Ad diem illum: “Jesus ‘sitteth on the right hand of the majesty on high’ (Heb. 1:3). Mary sitteth at the right hand of her Son ‘a refuge so secure and a help so trusty against all dangers that we have nothing to fear or to despair of under her guidance, her patronage, her protection’ (Pius IX. in Bull Ineffabilis)”.
Pius XII: Radio message to the Portuguese people at the coronation of the statue of Fatima, called his message the “Queenship of Mary” (May 13, 1946).
– As mother of Christ the King, the Virgin Mary has a share in the royalty of her Son, especially since she is the mother of the King, and not only the mother of a man who, after his birth, would become king.
– As co-redemptrix, the new Eve possesses in a subordinate capacity the power that the new Adam acquired by right of conquest.
– The plenitude of grace and virtue also makes it possible to award her the title of Queen, at least in the sense that someone who shines by excellence is called a king.
– She exercises this royalty by the distribution of the fruits of the Redemption, and by her infallible intercession.
The titles of Queen of the different orders of saints in the Litanies of Loreto – Apostles, Patriarchs, Angels, etc. – can mean both royalty as authority and royalty as excellence.