Seventh Centenary of the Canonization of St. Thomas Aquinas (3)

Source: FSSPX News

The Blessed Virgin and the Child Jesus surrounded by St. Dominic and St. Thomas Aquinas, by Fra Angelico

On the occasion of the 700th anniversary of the canonization of the Angelic Doctor, FSSPX.News is publishing several texts showing the place of the Common Doctor in theology and in the teaching of the Church. The third text is the encyclical Studiorum ducem written by Pius XI for the sixth centenary of the canonization of St. Thomas Aquinas.

Given in Rome, at St. Peter’s, June 29, 1923, Feast of the Princes of the Apostles, and of the second year of Our Pontificate.

Encyclical letter to Our Venerable Brethren, the Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, Bishops and other Ordinaries in Grace and Communion with the Apostolic See on the occasion of the sixth centenary of the canonization of St. Thomas Aquinas.

Venerable Brethren, Greeting and the Apostolic Benediction.

In a recent apostolic letter confirming the statutes of Canon Law, We declared that the guide to be followed in the higher studies by young men training for the priesthood was Thomas Aquinas.

The approaching anniversary of the day when he was duly enrolled, six hundred years ago, in the calendar of the Saints, offers Us an admirable opportunity of inculcating this more and more firmly in the minds of Our students and explaining to them what advantage they may most usefully derive from the teaching of so illustrious a Doctor.

For science truly deserving of the name and piety, the companion of all the virtues, are related in a marvelous bond of affinity, and, as God is very Truth and very Goodness, it would assuredly not be sufficient to procure the glory of God by the salvation of souls-the chief task and peculiar mission of the Church-if ministers of religion were well disciplined in knowledge and not also abundantly provided at the same time with the appropriate virtues.

Such a combination of doctrine and piety, of erudition and virtue, of truth and charity, is to be found in an eminent degree in the angelic Doctor and it is not without reason that he has been given the sun for a device; for he both brings the light of learning into the minds of men and fires their hearts and wills with the virtues.

God, the Source of all sanctity and wisdom would, therefore, seem to have desired to show in the case of Thomas how each of these qualities assists the other, how the practice of the virtues disposes to the contemplation of truth, and the profound consideration of truth in turn gives luster and perfection to the virtues.

For the man of pure and upright life, whose passions are controlled by virtue, is delivered as it were of a heavy burden and can much more easily raise his mind to heavenly things and penetrate more profoundly into the secrets of God, according to the maxim of Thomas himself: “Life comes before learning: for life leads to the knowledge of truth” (Comment. on Mt. ch.5); and if such a man devotes himself to the investigation of the supernatural, he will find a powerful incentive in such a pursuit to lead a perfect life; for the learning of such sublime things, the beauty of which is a ravishing ecstasy, so far from being a solitary or sterile occupation, must be said to be on the contrary most practical.

These are among the first lessons, Venerable Brethren, which may be learned from the commemoration of this centenary; but that they may be the more clearly apparent, We propose to comment briefly in this Letter on the sanctity and doctrine of Thomas Aquinas and to show what profitable instruction may be derived therefrom by priests, by seminarians especially, and, not least, by all Christian people.

[Greatness of the moral virtues of St. Thomas]

Thomas possessed all the moral virtues to a very high degree and so closely bound together that, as he himself insists should be the case, they formed one whole in charity “which informs the acts of all the virtues” (II-II, xxiii, 8; I-II, Ixv).

If, however, we seek to discover the peculiar and specific characteristics of his sanctity, there occurs to Us in the first place that virtue which gives Thomas a certain likeness to the angelic natures, and that is chastity; he preserved it unsullied in a crisis of the most pressing danger and was therefore considered worthy to be surrounded by the angels with a mystic girdle.

This perfect regard for purity was accompanied at the same time by an equal aversion for fleeting possessions and a contempt for honors; it is recorded that his firmness of purpose overcame the obstinate persistence of relatives who strove their utmost to induce him to accept a lucrative situation in the world and that later, when the Supreme Pontiff would have offered him a miter, his prayers were successful in securing that such a dread burden should not be laid upon him.

The most distinctive feature, however, of the sanctity of Thomas is what St. Paul describes as the “word of wisdom” (I Cor. 12:8) and that combination of the two forms of wisdom, the acquired and the infused, as they are termed, with which nothing accords so well as humility, devotion to prayer, and the love of God.

That humility was the foundation upon which the other virtues of Thomas were based is clear to anyone who considers how submissively he obeyed a lay brother in the course of their communal life; and it is no less patent to anyone reading his writings which manifest such respect for the Fathers of the Church that “because he had the utmost reverence for the doctors of antiquity, he seems to have inherited in a way the intellect of all” (Leo XIII, ex Card. Caietano, litt. Encycl. Aeterni Patris, 4th August, 1879).

But the most magnificent illustration of it is to be found in the fact that he devoted the faculties of his divine intellect not in the least to gain glory for himself, but to the advancement of truth. Most philosophers as a rule are eager to establish their own reputations, but Thomas strove to efface himself completely in the teaching of his philosophy so that the light of heavenly truth might shine with its own effulgence.

This humility, therefore, combined with the purity of heart We have mentioned, and sedulous devotion to prayer, disposed the mind of Thomas to docility in receiving the inspirations of the Holy Ghost and following His illuminations, which are the first principles of contemplation.

To obtain them from above, he would frequently fast, spend whole nights in prayer, lean his head in the fervor of his unaffected piety against the tabernacle containing the august Sacrament, constantly turn his eyes and mind in sorrow to the image of the crucified Jesus; and he confessed to his intimate friend St. Bonaventura that it was from that Book especially that he derived all his learning.

It may, therefore, be truly said of Thomas what is commonly reported of St. Dominic, Father and Lawgiver, that in his conversation he never spoke but about God or with God.

But as he was accustomed to contemplate all things in God, the first Cause and ultimate End of all things, it was easy for him to follow in his Summa Theologica no less than in his life the two kinds of wisdom before referred to. He himself describes them as follows:

 “The wisdom which is acquired by human effort . . . gives a man a sound judgment with regard to divine things according as he makes a perfect use of reason. . . But there is another kind of wisdom which comes down from above . . . and judges divine things in virtue of a certain connaturality with them. This wisdom is the gift of the Holy Ghost . . . and through it a man becomes perfect in divine things, not only by learning but also by experiencing divine things” (II-II, xlv, 1, ad 2; 2).

This wisdom, therefore, which comes down from, or is infused by, God, accompanied by the other gifts of the Holy Ghost, continually grew and increased in Thomas, along with charity, the mistress and queen of all the virtues. Indeed it was an absolutely certain doctrine of his that the love of God should ever continually increase “in accordance with the very words of the commandment: ‘Thou shalt love the Lord, thy God, with thy whole heart’; for the whole and the perfect are one same thing. . .

Now the end of the commandment is charity from a pure heart, and a good conscience and an unfeigned faith, as the Apostle says (I Tim. 1:5), but no standard of measure is applicable to the end, but only to such things as conduce to the end (II-II, clxxxiv, 3).” This is the very reason why the perfection of charity falls under the commandment as the end to which we ought all to strive, each according to his degree.

Moreover, as “it is the characteristic of charity to make man tend to God by uniting the affections of man to God in such a way that man ceases to live for himself and lives only for God” (II-II, xvii, 6, ad 3), so the love of God, continually increasing in Thomas along with that double wisdom, induced in him in the end such absolute forgetfulness of self that when Jesus spoke to him from the cross, saying: “Thomas, thou hast written well about me,” and asked him: “What reward shall I give thee for all thy labor?” the saint made answer: “None but Thyself, O Lord!” Instinct with charity, therefore, he unceasingly continued to serve the convenience of others, not counting the cost, by writing admirable books, helping his brethren in their labors, depriving himself of his own garments to give them to the poor, even restoring the sick to health as, for example, when preaching in the Vatican Basilica on the occasion of the Easter celebrations, he suddenly cured a woman who had touched the hem of his habit of a chronic hemorrhage.

In what other Doctor was this “word of wisdom” mentioned by St. Paul more remarkable and abundant than in the Angelic Doctor? He was not satisfied with enlightening the minds of men by his teaching: he exerted himself strenuously to rouse their hearts to make a return of His love to God, the Creator of all things.

 “The love of God is the source and origin of goodness in things” he magnificently declares (1, xx, 2), and he ceaselessly illustrates this diffusion of the divine goodness in his discussion of every several mystery. “Hence it is of the nature of perfect good to communicate itself in a perfect way and this is done in a supreme degree by God . . . in the Incarnation” (III, i, I). Nothing, however, shows the force of his genius and charity so clearly as the Office which he himself composed for the august Sacrament. The words he uttered on his deathbed, as he was about to receive the holy Viaticum, are the measure of his devotion to that Sacrament throughout his life: “I receive Thee, Price of the redemption of my soul, for the love of Whom I have studied, kept vigil and toiled.”

[Preeminence of St. Thomas’ doctrine]

After this slight sketch of the great virtues of Thomas, it is easy to understand the preeminence of his doctrine and the marvelous authority it enjoys in the Church. Our Predecessors, indeed, have always unanimously extolled it.

Even during the lifetime of the saint, Alexander IV had no hesitation in addressing him in these terms: “To Our beloved son, Thomas Aquinas, distinguished alike for nobility of blood and integrity of character, who has acquired by the grace of God the treasure of divine and human learning.”

After his death, again, John XXII seemed to consecrate both his virtues and his doctrine when, addressing the Cardinals, he uttered in full Consistory the memorable sentence: “He alone enlightened the Church more than all other doctors; a man can derive more profit in a year from his books than from pondering all his life the teaching of others.”

He enjoyed a more than human reputation for intellect and learning and Pius V was therefore moved to enroll him officially among the holy Doctors with the title of Angelic.

Again, could there be any more manifest indication of the very high esteem in which this Doctor is held by the Church than the fact that the Fathers of Trent resolved that two volumes only, Holy Scripture and the Summa Theologica, should be reverently laid open on the altar during their deliberations?

And in this order of ideas, to avoid recapitulating the innumerable testimonies of the Apostolic See, We are happy to recall that the philosophy of Aquinas was revived by the authority and at the instance of Leo XIII; the merit of Our illustrious Predecessor in so doing is such, as We have said elsewhere, that if he had not been the author of many acts and decrees of surpassing wisdom, this alone would be sufficient to establish his undying glory.

Pope Pius X of saintly memory followed shortly afterwards in his footsteps, more particularly in his Motu Proprio Doctoris Angelici, in which this memorable phrase occurs: “For ever since the happy death of the Doctor, the Church has not held a single Council but he has been present at it with all the wealth of his doctrine.”

Closer to Us, Our greatly regretted Predecessor Benedict XV repeatedly declared that he was entirely of the same opinion and he is to be praised for having promulgated the Code of Canon Law in which “the system, philosophy and principles of the Angelic Doctor” are unreservedly sanctioned.

We so heartily approve the magnificent tribute of praise bestowed upon this most divine genius that We consider that Thomas should be called not only the Angelic, but also the Common or Universal Doctor of the Church; for the Church has adopted his philosophy for her own, as innumerable documents of every kind attest.

[Reasons for this preeminence]

It would be an endless task to explain here all the reasons which moved Our Predecessors in this respect, and it will be sufficient perhaps to point out that Thomas wrote under the inspiration of the supernatural spirit which animated his life and that his writings, which contain the principles of, and the laws governing, all sacred studies, must be said to possess a universal character.

[Model of the union of the intellectual life and love of God]

In dealing orally or in writing with divine things, he provides theologians with a striking example of the intimate connection which should exist between the spiritual and the intellectual life. For just as a man cannot really be said to know some distant country, if his acquaintance is confined merely to a description of it, however accurate, but must have dwelt in it for some time; so nobody can attain to an intimate knowledge of God by mere scientific investigation, unless he also dwells in the most intimate association with God.

The aim of the whole theology of St. Thomas is to bring us into close living intimacy with God. For even as in his childhood at Monte Cassino he unceasingly put the question: “What is God?”; so all the books he wrote concerning the creation of the world, the nature of man, laws, the virtues, and the sacraments, are all concerned with God, the Author of eternal salvation.

Again, discussing the causes of the sterility of such studies, namely curiosity, that is to say the unbridled desire for knowledge, indolence of mind, aversion from effort and lack of perseverance, he insists that there is no other remedy than zeal in work with the fervor of piety which derives from the life of the spirit.

Sacred studies, therefore, being directed by a triple light, undeviating reason, infused faith and the gifts of the Holy Ghost, by which the mind is brought to perfection, no one ever was more generously endowed with these than Our Saint. After spending all the riches of his intellect on some matter of exceptional difficulty, he would seek the solution of his problem from God by the most humble prayer and fasting; and God was wont to listen to His suppliant so kindly that He dispatched the Princes of the Apostles at times to instruct him.

 It is not therefore surprising that towards the end of his life he had risen to such a degree of contemplation as to declare that all he had written seemed to him mere chaff and that he was incapable of dictating another word; his eyes even then were fixed on eternity alone, his one desire was to see God. For, according to Thomas, by far the most important benefit to be derived from sacred studies, is that they inspire a man with a great love for God and a great longing for eternal things.

He not only instructs us by his example how to pursue such a diversity of studies, but also teaches us firm and enduring principles of each single science.

[His eminent conception of philosophy]

For, in the first place, who has provided a better explanation than he of the nature and character of philosophy, its various divisions and the relative importance of each? Consider how clearly he demonstrates the congruence and harmony between all the various sections which go to make up the body as it were of this science.

“It is the function of the wise man,” he declares, “to put things in order, because wisdom is primarily the perfection of reason and it is the characteristic of reason to know order; for although the sensitive faculties know some things absolutely, only the intellect or reason can know the relation one thing bears to another. The sciences, therefore, vary according to the various forms of order which reason perceives to be peculiar to each.

The order which the consideration of reason establishes in its own peculiar activity pertains to rational philosophy or logic, whose function is to consider the order of the parts of speech in their mutual relations and in relation to the conclusions which may be drawn from them.

It is for natural philosophy or physics to consider the order in things which human reason considers but does not itself institute, so that under natural philosophy we include also metaphysics.

But the order of voluntary acts is for the consideration of moral philosophy which is divided into three sections: the first considers the activities of the individual man in relation to their end and is called ‘monastics’; the second considers the activities of the family group or community and is called economics; the third considers the activities of the State and is called politics” (Ethics, I, I).

Thomas dealt thoroughly with all these several divisions of philosophy, each according to its appropriate method, and, beginning with things nearest to our human reason, rose step by step to things more remote until he stood in the end on “the topmost peak of all things” (Contra Gentiles, II, lvi; IV, i).

His teaching with regard to the power or value of the human mind is irrefragable. “The human mind has a natural knowledge of being and the things which are in themselves part of being as such, and this knowledge is the foundation of our knowledge of first principles” (Contra Gentiles, II, 1xxxiii).

Such a doctrine goes to the root of the errors and opinions of those modern philosophers who maintain that it is not being itself which is perceived in the act of intellection, but some modification of the percipient; the logical consequence of such errors is agnosticism, which was so vigorously condemned in the encyclical Pascendi.

[Demonstration of the existence of God]

The arguments adduced by St. Thomas to prove the existence of God and that God alone is subsisting Being Itself are still to-day, as they were in the Middle Ages, the most cogent of all arguments and clearly confirm that dogma of the Church which was solemnly proclaimed at the Vatican Council and succinctly expressed by Pius X as follows: “The certain knowledge of God as the first principle of creation and its end and demonstrable proof of His existence can be inferred, like the knowledge of a cause from its effect, by the light of the natural reason, from creation, that is to say the visible works of creation” (Motu Proprio Sacrorum Antistitum of the September 1, 1910).

The metaphysical philosophy of St. Thomas, although exposed to this day to the bitter onslaughts of prejudiced critics, yet still retains, like gold which no acid can dissolve, its full force and splendor unimpaired. Our Predecessor therefore rightly observed: “To deviate from Aquinas, in metaphysics especially, is to run grave risk” (Encycl. Pascendi of the September 8, 1907).

[The Prince of theology]

Philosophy is undoubtedly a most noble science, but as things are not constituted by divine Providence, it must not be said to excel all others, because it does not embrace the whole universality of things.

Indeed, in the introduction to his Summa Contra Gentiles, as also to his Summa Theologica, the saintly Doctor describes another order of things set above nature and eluding the grasp of reason, an order which man would never have suspected unless the divine goodness had revealed it to him. This is the region in which faith is supreme, and the science of faith is called Theology.

Science of this kind will be all the more perfect in man in proportion as he is the better acquainted with the evidence for faith and has at the same time a more fully developed and trained faculty of philosophizing. There can be no doubt that Aquinas raised Theology to the highest eminence, for his knowledge of divine things was absolutely perfect and the power of his mind made him a marvelously capable philosopher.

Thomas is therefore considered the Prince of teachers in our schools, not so much on account of his philosophical system as because of his theological studies.

There is no branch of theology in which he did not exercise the incredible fecundity of his genius. For in the first place he established apologetics on a sound and genuine basis by defining exactly the difference between the province of reason and the province of faith and carefully distinguishing the natural and the supernatural orders.

When the sacred Vatican Council, therefore, in determining what natural knowledge of religion was possible, affirmed the relative necessity of some divine revelation for sure and certain knowledge and the absolute necessity of divine revelation for knowledge of the mysteries, it employed arguments which were borrowed precisely from St. Thomas. He insists that all who undertake to defend the Christian faith shall hold sacrosanct the principle that:

“It is not mere folly to assent to the things of faith although they are beyond reason” (Contra Gentiles, I, vi). He shows that, although the articles of belief are mysterious and obscure, the reasons which persuade us to believe are nevertheless clear and perspicuous, for, says he, “a man would not believe unless he saw that there were things to be believed” (II-II, i, 4).

He adds that, so far from being considered a hindrance or a servile yoke imposed upon men, faith should, on the contrary, be reckoned a very great blessing, because “faith in us is a sort of beginning of eternal life” (Qq. disp. de Veritate, xiv, 2).

The other branch of Theology, which is concerned with the interpretation of dogmas, also found in St. Thomas by far the richest of all commentators; for nobody ever more profoundly penetrated or expounded with greater subtlety all the august mysteries, as, for example, the intimate life of God, the obscurity of eternal predestination, the supernatural government of the world, the faculty granted to rational creatures of attaining their end, the redemption of the human race achieved by Jesus Christ and continued by the Church and the sacraments, both of which the Angelic Doctor describes as “relics, so to speak, of the divine Incarnation.”

He also composed a substantial moral theology, capable of directing all human acts in accordance with the supernatural last end of man. And as he is, as We have said, the perfect theologian, so he gives infallible rules and precepts of life not only for individuals, but also for civil and domestic society which is the object also of moral science, both economic and politic.

Hence those superb chapters in the second part of the Summa Theologica on paternal or domestic government, the lawful power of the State or the nation, natural and international law, peace and war, justice and property, laws and the obedience they command, the duty of helping individual citizens in their need and co-operating with all to secure the prosperity of the State, both in the natural and the supernatural order.

If these precepts were religiously and inviolably observed in private life and public affairs, and in the duties of mutual obligation between nations, nothing else would be required to secure mankind that “peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ” which the world so ardently longs for.

It is therefore to be wished that the teachings of Aquinas, more particularly his exposition of international law and the laws governing the mutual relations of peoples, became more and more studied, for it contains the foundations of a genuine “League of Nations.”

His eminence in the learning of asceticism and mysticism is no less remarkable; for he brought the whole science of morals back to the theory of the virtues and gifts, and marvelously defined both the science and the theory in relation to the various conditions of men, both those who strive to attain Christian perfection and fullness of spirit, in the active no less than in the contemplative life.

If anyone, therefore, desires to understand fully all the implications of the commandment to love God, the growth of charity and the conjoined gifts of the Holy Ghost, the differences between the various states of life, such as the state of perfection, the religious life and the apostolate, and the nature and value of each, all these and other articles of ascetical and mystical theology, he must have recourse in the first place to the Angelic Doctor.

[The exegesis of St. Thomas]

Everything he wrote was securely based upon Holy Scripture and that was the foundation upon which he built. For as he was convinced that Scripture was entirely and in every particular the true word of God, he carefully submitted the interpretation of it to those very rules which Our recent Predecessors have sanctioned, Leo XIII in his encyclical Providentissimus Deus and Benedict XV in his encyclical Spiritus Paraclitus.

He laid down the principle “The chief Author of Sacred Scripture is the Holy Ghost. . . But man was the instrumental author” (Quodlib., vii, 14, ad 5), and would not allow the absolute historicity of the Bible to be doubted; but on the basis of the meaning of the words or literal sense he established the fecundity and riches of the spiritual sense, the triple nature of which, allegorical, tropological and anagogical, he expounded with the most ingenious commentary.

[St. Thomas champion of the Blessed Sacrament]

Lastly, our Doctor possessed the exceptional and highly privileged gift of being able to convert his precepts into liturgical prayers and hymns and so became the poet and panegyrist of the Divine Eucharist. For wherever the Catholic Church is to be found in the world among whatsoever nations, there she zealously uses and ever will continue to use in her sacred services the hymns composed by St. Thomas. They are the expression of the ardent supplications of a soul in prayer and at the same time a perfect statement of the doctrine of the august Sacrament transmitted by the Apostles, which is pre-eminently described as the Mystery of Faith.

If these considerations are borne in mind as well as the praise bestowed by Christ Himself to which We have already referred, nobody will be surprised that St. Thomas should also have received the title of the Doctor of the Eucharist.

[Practical conclusions]

The following very relevant conclusions may be drawn from all that has gone before.

Let Our young men especially consider the example of St. Thomas and strive diligently to imitate the eminent virtues which adorn his character, his humility above all, which is the foundation of the spiritual life, and his chastity.

Let them learn from this man of supreme intellect and consummate learning to abhor all pride of mind and to obtain by humble prayer a flood of divine light upon their studies; let them learn from his teaching to shun nothing so sedulously as the blandishments of sensual pleasure, so that they may bring the eyes of the mind undimmed to the contemplation of wisdom.

For he confirmed by his precept, as We have said, his own practice in life: “To abstain from the pleasures of the Body so as to be certain of greater leisure and liberty for the contemplation of truth is to act in conformity with the dictates of reason” (II-II, clvii, 2).

Wherefore we are warned in Holy Scripture: “. . . wisdom will not enter into a malicious soul, nor dwell in a body subject to sins” (Wis. 1:4). If the purity of Thomas therefore had failed in the extreme peril into which, as we have seen, it had fallen, it is very probable that the Church would never have had her Angelic Doctor.

Inasmuch, therefore, as We see the majority of young men, caught in the quicksands of passion, rapidly jettisoning holy purity and abandoning themselves to sensual pleasures, We instantly exhort you, Venerable Brethren, to propagate everywhere, and particularly among seminarians, the society of the Angelic Militia founded under the patronage of Thomas for the preservation and maintenance of holy chastity and We confirm the privileges of pontifical indulgences heaped upon it by Benedict XIII and others of Our Predecessors.

And that the Faithful may be persuaded the more eagerly to enroll in this Militia, We grant members of it the privilege of wearing instead of a cord a medal round the neck impressed on the obverse with a picture of St. Thomas and the angels surrounding him with a girdle and on the reverse a picture of Our Lady, Queen of the Most Holy Rosary.

But inasmuch as St. Thomas has been duly proclaimed patron of all Catholic schools because he marvelously combined both forms of wisdom, the rational and the divinely inspired, because he had recourse to prayer and fasting to solve the most difficult problems, because he used the image of Christ crucified in place of all books, let him be a model also for seminarians, so that they may learn how to pursue their studies to the best advantage and with the greatest profit to themselves.

Members of religious communities should look upon the life of St. Thomas as upon a mirror; he refused even the highest dignities offered to him in order to live in the practice of the most perfect obedience and to die in the sanctity of his profession.

Let all the Faithful of Christ take the Angelic Doctor as a model of devotion to the august Queen of Heaven, for it was his custom often to repeat the “Hail Mary” and to inscribe the sweet Name upon his pages, and let them ask the Doctor of the Eucharist himself to inspire them with love for the divine Sacrament.

Priests above all will be zealous in so doing, as is only proper. “For Thomas was accustomed, unless prevented by illness, to say Mass daily and heard another Mass said by his socius or some other friar which he very often served,” declares the careful historian of his life.

But could anyone find words to express the spiritual fervor with which he said Mass himself, the anxious care with which he made his preparation, the thanksgivings he offered to the divine Majesty after he had said it?

Again, if we are to avoid the errors which are the source and fountain-head of all the miseries of our time, the teaching of Aquinas must be adhered to more religiously than ever. For Thomas refutes the theories propounded by Modernists in every sphere, in philosophy, by protecting, as We have reminded you, the force and power of the human mind and by demonstrating the existence of God by the most cogent arguments; in dogmatic theology, by distinguishing the supernatural from the natural order and explaining the reasons for belief and the dogmas themselves; in theology, by showing that the articles of faith are not based upon mere opinion but upon truth and therefore cannot possibly change; in exegesis, by transmitting the true conception of divine inspiration; in the science of morals, in sociology and law, by laying down sound principles of legal and social, commutative and distributive, justice and explaining the relations between justice and charity; in the theory of asceticism, by his precepts concerning the perfection of the Christian life and his confutation of the enemies of the religious orders in his own day.

Lastly, against the much vaunted liberty of the human reason and its independence in regard to God he asserts the rights of primary Truth and the authority over us of the Supreme Master. It is therefore clear why Modernists are so amply justified in fearing no Doctor of the Church so much as Thomas Aquinas.

Accordingly, just as it was said to the Egyptians of old in time of famine: “Go to Joseph,” so that they should receive a supply of corn from him to nourish their bodies, so We now say to all such as are desirous of the truth: “Go to Thomas,” and ask him to give you from his ample store the food of substantial doctrine wherewith to nourish your souls unto eternal life.

Evidence that such food is ready to hand and accessible to all men was given on oath at the hearing of the case for the canonization of Thomas himself, in the following words: “Innumerable secular and religious masters flourished under the lucid and limpid teaching of this Doctor, because his method was concise, clear and easily followed . . . even laymen and persons of little instruction are eager to possess his writings.”

We desire those especially who are engaged in teaching the higher studies in seminaries sedulously to observe and inviolably to maintain the decrees of Our Predecessors, more particularly those of Leo XIII (the encyclical Aeterni Patris), and Pius X (the motu proprio Doctoris Angelici) and the instructions We Ourselves issued last year.

Let them be persuaded that they will discharge their duty and fulfill Our expectation when, after long and diligent perusal of his writings, they begin to feel an intense devotion for the Doctor Aquinas and by their exposition of him succeed in inspiring their pupils with like fervor and train them to kindle a similar zeal in others.

We desire that lovers of St. Thomas-and all sons of the Church who devote themselves to higher studies should be so-be incited by an honorable rivalry in a just and proper freedom which is the life-blood of studies, but let no spirit of malevolent disparagement prevail among them, for any such, so far from helping truth, serves only to loosen the bonds of charity.

Let everyone therefore inviolably observe the prescription contained in the Code of Canon Law that “teachers shall deal with the studies of mental philosophy and theology and the education of their pupils in such sciences according to the method, doctrine and principles of the Angelic Doctor and religiously adhere thereto”; and may they conform to this rule so faithfully as to be able to describe him in very truth as their master.

Let none require from another more than the Church, the mistress and mother of all, requires from each: and in questions, which in Catholic schools are matter of controversy between the most reputable authorities, let none be prevented from adhering to whatever opinion seems to him the more probable.

Therefore, as it behooves the whole of Christendom worthily to celebrate this centenary, because in honoring St. Thomas something greater is involved than the reputation of St. Thomas and that is the authority of the teaching Church.

We desire that such celebration shall take place throughout the world from the 18th July until the end of next year wherever seminarians are in regular course of instruction, that is to say not only among the Preaching Friars, an Order which, in the words of Benedict XV, “must be praised, not so much for having been the family of the Angelic Doctor, as for having never afterwards departed so much as a hair’s breadth from his teaching” (Acta Ap. Sedis, viii, 1916, p. 397), but among other religious communities also, and in all seminaries and Catholic colleges and schools to which he has been appointed for heavenly patron.

It is only proper that this Eternal City in which Aquinas was once master of the Sacred Palace should take the lead in holding such celebrations and that the Pontifical Angelical College, where St. Thomas may be said to be at home, and the other academies in Rome for the education of priests set the example in these holy rejoicings.

In virtue of Our Apostolic power and for the purpose of increasing the splendor and profit to be derived from this celebration, We grant the following privileges:

1) That in all churches belonging to the Order of Preachers and in all other churches or chapels to which the public has or may have access, more particularly in seminaries, colleges or other institutions for the education of priests, prayers may be said for three or eight or nine days with the pontifical indulgences attaching to them which customarily attach to prayers said in honor of the saints and the blessed;

2) That in the churches of the Friars and the Sisters of St. Dominic the faithful may once on any day they choose in the course of the centenary celebrations, after duly confessing their sins and receiving Holy Communion, obtain a plenary indulgence toties quoties they pray before the altar of St. Thomas;

3) That in churches of the Order of St. Dominic, priests, members of the Order or tertiaries, may, in the course of the centenary year on any Wednesday or the first free day of the week, celebrate Mass in honor of St. Thomas, as on his feast-day, with or without the Gloria and the Credo, according to the ritual of the day, and obtain a plenary remission of sins; those present at any such Mass may also obtain a like indulgence on the usual conditions.

In addition, a disputation shall be held in seminaries and other institutions for the education of priests on some point of philosophy or other important branch of learning in honor of the Angelic Doctor.

And that the festival of St. Thomas may be kept in future in a manner worthy of the patron of all Catholic schools, We order it to be kept as a holiday and celebrated not only with a High Mass, but also, at any rate in seminaries and among religious communities, by the holding-of a disputation as aforesaid.

Finally, that the studies to which Our young people devote themselves may, under the patronage of Aquinas, daily yield more and more fruit for the glory of God and the Church, We append to this Letter the form of prayer which the Saint himself was accustomed to use and exhort you to see that it be widely published. Let any person duly reciting it know that by Our authority an indulgence of seven years and seven quarantines is granted him.

As an augury of divine favor and in testimony of Our paternal benevolence, We most affectionately grant you, Venerable Brethren, and the clergy and people committed to your care the Apostolic Blessing.

Given at Rome at St. Peter’s on the 29th day of June, the feast of the Princes of the Apostles, in the year 1923, the second year of Our Pontificate.

Pius XI, Pope

Prayer of St. Thomas

Ineffable Creator, Who out of the treasures of Thy wisdom hast appointed three hierarchies of Angels and set them in admirable order high above the heavens and hast disposed the divers portions of the universe in such marvelous array, Thou Who art called the True Source of Light and super-eminent Principle of Wisdom, be pleased to cast a beam of Thy radiance upon the darkness of my mind and dispel from me the double darkness of sin and ignorance in which I have been born.

Thou Who makest eloquent the tongues of little children, fashion my words and pour upon my lips the grace of Thy benediction. Grant me penetration to understand, capacity to retain, method and facility in study, subtlety in interpretation and abundant grace of expression.

Order the beginning, direct the progress and perfect the achievement of my work, Thou who art true God and Man and livest and reignest for ever and ever. Amen.

St. Thomas receiving the Dominican habit

[Le Prince de la théologie]

Certes, la philosophie est la plus noble parmi les sciences humaines ; mais, dans l’ordre établi par la divine Providence, on ne peut dire qu’elle ait le pas sur toutes les autres, vu qu’elle n’embrasse pas l’universalité des choses.

Et de fait, au début même de la Somme contre les Gentils et de la Somme théologique, le saint Docteur décrit un autre ordre de choses, supérieur à la nature, dépassant les forces de la raison, et que l’homme, sans le bienfait de la révélation divine, n’aurait jamais soupçonné. Cette sphère est le domaine de la foi, et la science de la foi s’appelle la théologie.

Celui-là aura nécessairement une science plus parfaite de la théologie qui possédera mieux les données de la foi et aura un esprit philosophique plus étendu et plus pénétrant. Il n’est donc pas douteux que la théologie ait été portée à sa plus haute perfection par saint Thomas, chez qui on trouve une connaissance absolument parfaite des choses divines et une intelligence merveilleusement douée pour la philosophie.

Aussi n’est-ce pas tant par son enseignement philosophique que par son œuvre théologique, que dans nos écoles saint Thomas est le maître.

Il n’est pas, en effet, une seule partie de la théologie où il n’ait mis en œuvre avec un rare succès les richesses merveilleuses de son génie. Et tout d’abord, il a établi sur ses véritables bases l’apologétique, fixant nettement la distinction entre les vérités de la raison et celles de la foi, entre l’ordre naturel et l’ordre surnaturel.

Aussi, lorsqu’il définit la possibilité de connaître certaines vérités religieuses par les lumières de la raison, la nécessité morale d’une révélation divine pour les connaître toutes avec certitude et sans erreur, enfin la nécessité absolue d’une révélation pour connaître les mystères, le Concile du Vatican n’emploie que des arguments empruntés à saint Thomas. Il entend que tous les apologistes du dogme catholique tiennent pour sacré ce principe :

« Donner son assentiment aux vérités de la foi, ce n’est pas faire preuve de légèreté, bien qu’elles dépassent la raison. » Il montre, en effet, que, si mystérieuses et obscures que soient les vérités de la foi, les raisons du moins sont claires et évidentes qui poussent l’homme à croire, au point « qu’il ne croirait pas s’il ne voyait pas qu’il faut croire ».

Il ajoute même que, loin de considérer la foi comme une entrave ou un joug d’esclave imposé à l’humanité, il la faut tenir pour un bienfait très précieux, étant donné que « la foi est en nous comme les prémices de la vie éternelle ».

La seconde partie de la théologie, qui s’occupe de l’explication des dogmes, est aussi étudiée par saint Thomas avec une ampleur exceptionnelle

 Personne n’a pénétré plus profondément ni exposé avec plus de sagacité tous les mystères sacrés, notamment la vie intime de Dieu, le problème de la prédestination éternelle, le gouvernement surnaturel du monde, la faculté accordée aux êtres raisonnables d’atteindre leur fin, la rédemption du genre humain opérée par Jésus-Christ et continuée par l’Eglise et les sacrements, ces deux « reliques de l’Incarnation divine », suivant l’expression du saint Docteur.

En morale également, Thomas a formulé une solide doctrine théologique qui dirige tous nos actes d’une manière appropriée à notre fin surnaturelle. Et parce qu’il possède – comme Nous le disions – une connaissance parfaite de la théologie, il donne des règles sûres qui doivent guider non seulement l’individu dans sa vie personnelle, mais aussi la famille et la société, objet de la morale politique.

Et nous avons alors, dans la deuxième partie de la Somme théologique, ces magnifiques enseignements sur le gouvernement paternel ou domestique, le pouvoir légitime dans les cités ou les Etats, le droit naturel et le droit des gens, la paix et la guerre, la justice et la propriété, les lois et leur observation, le devoir de soulager la misère privée et de collaborer à la prospérité publique, dans l’ordre naturel et surnaturel.

Le jour où, dans la vie privée, dans la vie publique et dans les rapports qui s’imposent de nation à nation, ces règles seraient religieusement et inviolablement observées, rien ne manquerait plus pour assurer aux hommes cette « paix du Christ par le règne du Christ » à laquelle le monde entier aspire si ardemment.

Il est donc à souhaiter qu’on prenne de plus en plus en considération les enseignements de Thomas d’Aquin, spécialement sur le droit des gens et les lois qui règlent les relations internationales, car on y trouve les bases de la véritable Société des Nations.

Thomas n’est pas moins éminent par sa science ascétique et mystique. Ramenant toute la science morale à la théorie des vertus et des dons, il définit excellemment l’une et l’autre pour les différentes catégories de chrétiens, ceux qui veulent vivre en suivant les règles ordinaires et communes, ceux qui tendent à la perfection spirituelle dans sa plénitude sous la forme de la vie active ou de la vie contemplative.

Extension du précepte de l’amour divin, lois du développement de la charité et des dons du Saint-Esprit qui l’accompagnent, différents états de vie, tels que vie parfaite, vie religieuse, vie apostolique, caractères distinctifs de ces états, leur nature et leur valeur : pour posséder à fond ces questions et autres analogues de la théologie ascétique et mystique, on devra nécessairement recourir tout d’abord au Docteur angélique.

[L’exégèse de saint Thomas]

D’autre part, Thomas s’est appliqué à baser et édifier toute sa doctrine sur les Saintes Écritures. Convaincu que, dans toutes et chacune de ses parties, l’Ecriture est vraiment la parole de Dieu, il en soumet soigneusement l’interprétation aux lois mêmes que devaient consacrer tout récemment Nos prédécesseurs Léon XIII dans l’Encyclique Providentissimus Deus, et Benoît XV dans l’Encyclique Spiritus Paraclitus.

Il part de ce principe : « l’auteur principal de la Sainte Ecriture, c’est le Saint-Esprit… L’homme n’en est que l’auteur instrumental », et il n’admet pas de doute sur l’absolue valeur historique de la Bible ; mais, du sens des mots, ou sens littéral, il tire les richesses fécondes du sens spirituel, dont les trois formes allégorique, tropologique, anagogique, lui suggèrent d’habitude les commentaires les plus ingénieux.

[Saint Thomas chantre du Saint-Sacrement]

Enfin, le saint Docteur a eu comme le don et le privilège unique de traduire sa propre doctrine en prières et hymnes liturgiques, au point de devenir le poète et chantre incomparable de la divine Eucharistie. Partout, en effet, chez toutes les nations où elle est établie, l’Eglise catholique est heureuse d’employer et emploiera toujours dans sa liturgie les cantiques de saint Thomas, qui sont en même, temps l’effusion la plus ardente de l’âme en prière et la plus parfaite expression de la doctrine transmise par les apôtres touchant l’auguste sacrement, celui qu’on appelle plus spécialement le mystère de foi.

Si l’on pense à ce que Nous venons de rappeler et à l’éloge fait de lui par le Christ et que Nous avons déjà rapporté, on ne s’étonnera certes pas que Thomas ait reçu également le titre de Docteur eucharistique.

[Conclusions pratiques]

Et maintenant, de tout ce que Nous avons exposé jusqu’ici Nous recueillons les conclusions très opportunes que voici.

Tout d’abord, c’est particulièrement nos jeunes gens qui doivent tourner leurs regards vers saint Thomas et s’efforcer de reproduire ses grandes et éclatantes vertus, avant tout l’humilité, fondement de la vie spirituelle, et la chasteté.

Qu’ils sachent, en imitant ce merveilleux génie et sublime Docteur, fuir l’orgueil avec horreur, par d’humbles prières attirer sur leurs études les riches effusions de la lumière divine ; qu’à son exemple ils veillent avant tout à éviter les appâts du plaisir, afin que dans la contemplation de la sagesse aucune obscurité n’affaiblisse leurs regards.

Ce qu’il a lui-même pratiqué, il l’a confirmé par son enseignement : « Si quelqu’un s’abstient des voluptés charnelles pour vaquer plus librement à la contemplation de la vérité, sa conduite est conforme à la droite raison. »

Dans le même ordre d’idées, les divines Écritures nous donnent cet avertissement : « La sagesse n’entrera pas dans une âme qui aime le mal ; elle n’habitera point dans un corps esclave du péché. » Si la pureté de saint Thomas avait sombré dans l’extrême péril que Nous avons mentionné, il est vraisemblable que l’Eglise n’aurait jamais eu son Docteur angélique.

Aussi, voyant la plus grande partie de la jeunesse, séduite par les attraits des passions, perdre si prématurément la sainte pureté et devenir esclave des plaisirs, Nous vous demandons instamment, Vénérables Frères, de propager partout, principalement parmi les étudiants ecclésiastiques, l’association de la Milice Angélique, qui a pour but la sauvegarde de la chasteté sous la protection de saint Thomas ; et Nous tenons à confirmer les faveurs de la bienveillance pontificale dont cette confrérie a été comblée par Benoît XIII et Nos autres prédécesseurs.

Pour que les fidèles s’inscrivent plus volontiers encore dans cette Milice, Nous permettons à ses membres de remplacer le cordon par une médaille suspendue au cou, représentant au revers saint Thomas et les anges le ceignant du cordon, et portant à l’avers l’effigie de Notre-Dame, Reine du Très Saint Rosaire.

Saint Thomas a été officiellement proclamé patron de toutes les écoles catholiques parce qu’il a merveilleusement uni en lui, comme Nous le disions, les deux sagesses, celle qui s’acquiert par la raison et celle qui est surnaturellement infuse ; parce qu’il avait recours aux jeûnes et aux prières pour résoudre les problèmes les plus difficiles, et parce qu’il remplaçait tous les livres par l’image de Jésus crucifié.

La jeunesse cléricale apprendra à son école la manière la plus sage et la plus féconde de se livrer à l’étude des plus hautes disciplines.

Quant aux membres des familles religieuses, ils regarderont comme leur idéal la vie de Thomas, lequel refusa les dignités les plus hautes afin de pouvoir vivre dans la pratique de l’obéissance la plus parfaite et mourir dans l’intégrité de sa profession religieuse.

Tous les fidèles enfin pourront trouver dans le Docteur angélique un modèle de piété envers l’auguste Reine du ciel, dont il avait accoutumé de répéter la salutation angélique et d’écrire le doux nom en ses ouvrages, et demander au docteur eucharistique l’amour du divin Sacrement.

Et ce qui suit s’adresse naturellement tout d’abord aux prêtres : « Tous les jours il célébrait la messe, à moins d’en être empêché par la maladie, et en entendait une autre, celle de son compagnon ou d’un autre Père, qu’il servait très souvent lui-même » ; c’est ce que rapporte l’historien très attentif de sa vie.

Mais qui trouvera des mots pour dire avec quelle ferveur il célébrait les saints mystères, avec quel soin il s’y préparait, et quelles actions de grâces, après la messe, il offrait à la divine Majesté ?

D’autre part, si l’on veut se mettre en garde contre les erreurs qui sont la source et l’origine de tous les malheurs de notre époque, il faut rester plus que jamais fidèle à la doctrine de saint Thomas. Dans tous les domaines, Thomas réfute péremptoirement les théories imaginées par les modernistes.

En philosophie, en sauvegardant, comme Nous l’avons dit, la valeur et la force de l’intelligence humaine et en établissant par des arguments irréfutables l’existence de Dieu ; en dogmatique, en distinguant l’ordre surnaturel de l’ordre naturel et en mettant en lumière les raisons de croire et les dogmes mêmes ; en théologie, en montrant que toutes nos croyances reposent non sur une simple opinion, mais sur la vérité, et qu’elles sont immuables ; en science biblique, en établissant la vraie notion de l’inspiration divine ; en morale, en sociologie et en droit, en formulant avec exactitude les principes de justice légale ou sociale, de justice commutative ou distributive, et en exposant les rapports de la justice avec la charité ; en ascétique, en donnant les règles de la vie parfaite, comme aussi en réfutant ceux de ses contemporains qui attaquaient les Ordres religieux.

Enfin, à l’encontre de l’autonomie si vantée de la raison humaine, notre Docteur proclame les droits de la Vérité première et l’autorité du Maître souverain sur nous. On voit par là que les modernistes ont des motifs suffisants de ne craindre aucun Docteur de l’Eglise autant que Thomas d’Aquin.

Aussi, comme il a été dit autrefois aux Egyptiens lors d’une extrême disette : Allez à Joseph, ce Joseph qui devait leur fournir le blé nécessaire à nourrir leur corps ; de même, à tous ceux sans exception qui sont aujourd’hui en quête de vérité, Nous disons : Allez à Thomas, allez lui demander l’aliment de la saine doctrine, dont il est si riche et qui nourrit les âmes pour la vie éternelle.

Aliment à la portée de tous et facilement accessible, on l’affirma sous la foi du serment au cours du procès de béatification de Thomas : « La doctrine claire et facile de ce Docteur a formé un grand nombre de maîtres brillants, réguliers et séculiers ; à cause de sa manière synthétique, limpide, aisée…, même les laïques et personnes de moyenne intelligence désirent posséder ces écrits. »

Pour Nous, Nous ordonnons que les prescriptions de Nos prédécesseurs, en particulier de Léon XIII et de Pie X, comme également les directions que Nous donnions l’année dernière, soient méditées avec soin et scrupuleusement observées, par tous ceux surtout qui occupent dans les écoles ecclésiastiques les chaires les plus importantes.

Qu’ils s’en persuadent bien, ils ne s’acquitteront de leur charge et ne répondront à Notre attente que si, après s’être faits les disciples fervents du saint Docteur par une étude assidue et approfondie de ses ouvrages, ils communiquent à leurs élèves leur ardent amour pour ce Docteur en leur commentant ses écrits, et les rendent capables d’allumer cette même flamme chez les autres.

Entre les amis fervents de saint Thomas – comme doivent l’être tous les fils de l’Eglise qui se livrent aux études supérieures, – Nous désirons que s’établisse une noble émulation, respectueuse d’une juste liberté et propice au progrès de la science ; mais Nous condamnons tout esprit de dénigrement : il ne profite en rien à la vérité et n’aboutit qu’à relâcher les liens de la charité.

Que chacun s’en tienne donc fidèlement à cette prescription du droit canonique : « Dans l’étude de la philosophie rationnelle et de la théologie comme dans l’enseignement de ces sciences aux élèves, les professeurs suivront en tous points la méthode, la doctrine et les principes du Docteur angélique, et ils se feront un devoir de conscience de s’y tenir » ; et tous observeront cette règle avec une fidélité telle qu’ils puissent l’appeler leur maître en toute vérité.

On évitera pourtant d’exiger les uns des autres plus que ne réclame de tous l’Eglise, maîtresse et mère de tous ; et sur les points où les auteurs plus autorisés des écoles catholiques se partagent ordinairement en avis contraires, chacun sera laissé libre de suivre l’opinion qui lui paraît plus vraisemblable.

La chrétienté tout entière se doit de célébrer dignement ce centenaire, car les honneurs décernés à saint Thomas ne visent pas seulement à glorifier le saint Docteur, mais plus encore à exalter l’autorité de l’Eglise enseignante.

En conséquence, Nous désirons très vivement que, entre le 18 juillet de l’année courante et la fin de l’année prochaine, ce centenaire soit célébré dans le monde entier, par tous les établissements où les jeunes clercs reçoivent leur formation régulière : non pas seulement chez les Frères Prêcheurs, dont l’Ordre – suivant la remarque de Benoît XV – « doit être félicité moins d’avoir élevé le Docteur angélique que de ne s’être jamais écarté, dans la suite, fût-ce d’une ligne, de son enseignement », mais aussi dans les autres familles religieuses et dans tous les Séminaires, collèges et écoles catholiques, qui ont saint Thomas pour Patron.

Il convient que la Ville Éternelle, où Thomas fut quelque temps maître du Sacré Palais, ait le premier rang dans la célébration de ces fêtes ; il sera juste que, par leurs manifestations de sainte allégresse, le Collège pontifical angélique, où saint Thomas est en quelque sorte chez lui, et les autres Instituts ecclésiastiques de Rome se distinguent entre toutes les maisons où l’on étudie les sciences sacrées.

Pour accroître l’éclat de ce centenaire et le rendre plus fécond, en vertu de Notre autorité apostolique Nous concédons ce qui suit :

1. Dans toutes les églises de l’Ordre des Prêcheurs et dans toute autre église ou chapelle où le public a ou peut avoir accès, notamment dans les Séminaires, collèges ou écoles cléricales, des prières pourront avoir lieu sous forme de triduum, d’octave ou de neuvaine, avec concession, par faveur pontificale, des indulgences accordées pour les solennités habituelles en l’honneur des saints et des bienheureux ;

2. Dans les églises tant des Frères que des Sœurs de l’Ordre de Saint-Dominique, tous les fidèles pourront, au cours des fêtes du centenaire, durant un seul jour, laissé à leur choix, après s’être dûment confessés et nourris de l’aliment eucharistique, gagner une indulgence plénière chaque fois qu’ils feront une prière devant l’autel de saint Thomas ;

3. De plus, dans les églises de l’Ordre de Saint-Dominique, les prêtres du grand Ordre ou du Tiers-Ordre pourront, au cours de l’année centenaire, tous les mercredis ou le premier jour libre de chaque semaine, célébrer la messe en l’honneur de saint Thomas comme au jour de sa fête – avec ou sans Gloria et Credo, suivant le rite du jour – et gagner une indulgence plénière ; ceux qui assisteront à cette messe pourront gagner la même indulgence aux conditions ordinaires.

En outre, au cours de l’année centenaire, les Séminaires et autres maisons de formation cléricale organiseront, en l’honneur du Docteur angélique, une discussion solennelle (disputatio) sur un point de philosophie ou d’autres sciences importantes.

Et pour qu’à l’avenir saint Thomas soit honoré comme il convient au patron de toutes les écoles catholiques, Nous décidons que le jour de sa fête sera un jour de congé pour les étudiants et qu’on la célébrera non seulement par une messe solennelle, mais encore – au moins dans les Séminaires et les Instituts religieux – par une disputatio comme celle que Nous venons de prescrire.

Enfin, en vue d’obtenir que les études auxquelles se livrent Nos fils avec Thomas d’Aquin pour maître portent des fruits chaque jour plus abondants pour la gloire de Dieu et de l’Eglise, Nous annexons à cette Lettre la formule de prière qu’il récitait lui-même et Nous vous demandons instamment de la répandre. A quiconque la récitera avec piété, Nous accordons, en vertu de Notre autorité, une indulgence toties quoties de 7 ans et 7 quarantaines.

Comme gage des divines faveurs et en témoignage de Notre paternelle bienveillance, Nous vous accordons de tout cœur, à vous, Vénérables Frères, au clergé et aux fidèles confiés à chacun de vous, la Bénédiction Apostolique.

Donné à Rome, près Saint-Pierre, le 29 juin 1923, fête des Princes des apôtres, de Notre Pontificat la deuxième année.

Pie XI, Pape